clientele effect in the context of dividend policy





The Clientele effect theory asserts that the investors or the "clienteles" prefer a specific dividend yield investors who are in high income tax brackets could find it moreJirapron (2004) explored agency costs as a determinant of dividend policy especially in the context of shareholders rights. Change in a firms dividend policy may cause loss of old clientele and gain of new clientele, based on their different dividend preferences.Although commonly used in reference to dividend or coupon (interest) rates, the clientele effect can also be used in the context of leverage (debt levels) This research intends to ascertain the validity of this theory in the Kenyan context.Though they argued that even though clientele effect may change a firms dividend policy, one clientele is as good as another, therefore dividend policy remains irrelevant. Operations: You need to understand fac-tors affecting dividend policy because you may find that the firms dividend policy imposes limitations on expansion.clientele effect The argument that a firm attracts shareholders whose preferences for the payment and stability of dividends correspond to the Dividend policy theories are propositions put in place to explain the rationale and major arguments relating to payment of dividends by firms.These include the tax preference theory, the Agency theory, the Signaling Hypothesis, and The Clientele Effect Hypothesis Taken together, these results are consistent with both the agency and tax clientele theories of dividend policy.The valuation effects of stock splits and stock dividends. Journal of Financial Economics 13(4), pp. 461-490. Gul, F Kim, J Qiu, A. (2010, March). For example, see R. Pettit, "Taxes, Transactions Costs, and the Clientele Effect of Dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Dec 1977, pp 419 436.Clearly, once a firm establishes its payout pattern and attacks a given clientele, a shift in dividend policy would be ill-advised. Overview of Dividend Decision Factors Affecting Dividend Policy Forms of Dividends.6. Clientele Effect. When a company pays consistent dividends, it attracts shareholders who are looking for an organization with a predictable dividend-distribution pattern. 3.4 Clientele Effect Another factor that may affect a companys dividend policy is a clientele effect. In the context of dividend policy, this effect refers to the existence of a group of investors drawn to invest in firms with specific dividend policies. The dividend clientele argument does not necessarily rely on taxes alone. If, for whatever reason, certain groups of investors prefer companies with certain payout policies, they could also form a dividend clientele.Dividends are much less flexible than repurchases in this context, because Clientele Effect of Dividend Theory.

Pettit (1977) investigated the reaction of investors due to change in dividend policy in the USA.Chawla and Srinivasan (1987) carried out a study to identify the impact of dividend and retained earnings on stock price in the Indian context. Chapter Two: Literature Review. This chapter discusses the different theories laid down in context to dividend policy and explains theHe states that the continued undervaluation of corporate capital leads to dividend distributions. The clientele effects hypothesis is another related theory. The effect of dividend policy on the market price of shares in nigeria: case study of fifteen quoted companies. By. Dr.

J. J. Adefila Department of Accountancy, University of Maiduguri, Dr. J. A. Oladipo and J.O Adeoti Using actual portfolio and demoraphic data made available by the Individual Investor Research Project at Purdue University, this study finds evidence of a significant dividend clientele effect. For example, Prez-Gonzlez (2003) argues that a change in the dominant shareholders income tax rate has a significant effect on dividend payout policies.institutional dividend clienteles has been conducted in the U.S.A. Investigating institutional dividend clienteles in an Australian context is The clientele effect is the idea that the set of investors attracted to a particular kind of security will affect the price of the security when policies or circumstances change. For instance, some investors want a company that doesnt pay dividends but instead invests that money in growing the business If a company changes its dividend policy substantially, it is said to be subject to a clientele effect as some of its investors (its established clientele) decide to sell the security due to the change. Although commonly used in reference to dividend or coupon (interest) rates, it can also be used in the context Associated with dividend policy is the clientele effect.The clientele of firms, in this context referring to persons with money to invest, come in all varieties of preferences, some with low-payout and others with high-payout demands. Managers Views on Dividend Policy of Nepalese Enterprises 95. conducted in the context of Nepal.Pettit, R. Richardson, 1977.Taxes, transaction costs and the clientele effect of dividends, Journal of Financial Economics, Vol.5, 419-436. In the context of the US market, therefore, where dividends tend to be tax-discriminated against, ex-day price changes of lessTax clienteles would also imply that the impact of FA97 differed across companies depending on their dividend policy. We would expect the strongest effect on ex-day In addition, the dividend clientele effect does not appear significant around dividend announcements in Japan.These companies also have their senior managers on each others boards of directors. In this context, the majority of the shareholders are likely to have access to the firms inside information. Different groups of investors, or clienteles, prefer different policies, e.g. retirees need dividends for income. A firms past dividend policy deter-mines its current clientele of investors. Clientele effects impede changing policy. Author(s): Florin Sebastian Duma Subject(s): Economy Published by: Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Keywords: Taxation and Dividend Policy and the Clientele Effect. Summary/Abstract: Dividend policy is often reported to the shareholders, but seldom explained to them. 3 Objective Understand the role of dividend policy in the context of the firms overall financial policy. 4 Outline Types of dividends The dividend time line Stock price12 View 1: Dividend policy is relevant (contd) Clientele effect Some want dividends while others want capital gains Tax effect. Dividend policy refers to the decision regarding the magnitude of the dividend payout, the percentage of earnings paid to the stockholders in the form of dividends.The clientele effect indicates that investors will tend to hold stocks whose dividend policy fits their needs. This research investigates three main issues in the UK context: 1) the impact of dividends policy on market value 2) theThe clientele effect theory involves two important concepts: 1. The company tends to choose clients (investors) through a cash dividend policy consistent with their aspirations. that the clientele effect is only one second-order factor able to explain dividend policy, and.In the German context, Guler and Yurtoglu (2003) analyzed the ownership structure of 266. firms between 1992 and 1998. In this context, Baker et al (2007) reported little support to clientele effect by a sample of Canadian managers.Testing the relevancy of agency theory on dividend policy in the emerging market of Bangladesh. ICFAI J. Appl. This theory proclaims that clientele effect requires the company to select a particular dividend policy keeping the particular needs of its investors in mind.2.4. Bird in Hand Theory and Dividend Policy. A bird in hand is worth more than two in the bush. This statement in the context of dividend policy So the dividend policy was a popular research topic amongst financial researchers more than 50 years and it dealt with many critical corporate issues such as agency cost , clientele effect and share assessment. If a company changes its dividend policy substantially, it is said to be subject to a clientele effect as some of its investors (its established clientele) decide to sell the security due to the change. Although commonly used in reference to dividend or coupon (interest) rates, it can also be used in the context Factors that affect a companys dividend policy decision includeThe Clientele Effect. Investors face different financial situations, which lead to different attitudes toward dividends. Moreover, a stable dividend policy may be explained by the cli-entele effect."8 This clientele effect suggests that although there.Application of the business judgment rule is particularly appro-. priate in the dividend context. Management may base the dividend decision on a variety of factors. In the context of dividend policy, their model predicts that managers will a. Set a level of dividends (payout ratios) by looking at industry norms b. Focus on changes in dividends in response to changes in earnings. c. Usedividend policies that match their preferences is called the clientele effect. Other Dividend Policy Issues. n Information Content (Signaling) Hypothesis n When the company increases its dividend, it is fairly certain of improved future earnings. n Clientele Effect n Some investors prefer income, others prefer capital gains. v. Similarly, decrease in dividend coupled with dividend cut signifies a terrible news. In this context we should now study the Dividend Irrelevance theory of Modigliani and Miller and try to appreciate the concept of dividend irrelevance. 2. Clientele Effect of Dividend Retention Policy The dividend policy is used as a signaling mechanism to convey information on the present and future prospects of the firm and thus affects its market value. The dividend policy is designed after taking into consideration the investors preference for dividends and clientele effect. shareholders or equity holders in the form of dividends.real effects on the trading of shares of the company. Clientele Effect: Investors buy stocks whose Dividend Policy they like and sell the other ones. Dempsey (1996) advanced a discounted dividend model of share prices in the context of personal taxation. In terms of the model, consistent(2) clientele effects and ex-date effects of dividends, (3) behavioural models of dividend policy, (4) signalling effects of dividend announcements. This study aims to examine the possible effect that firms dividend policy might have on theof firms, however, they viewed it from different perspectives depending on the context of their work.This argument assumes that there are enough investors in each dividend clientele to allow firms to be He found that in the Indian context, it is the dividend rate that is an important determinant of dividend policy in comparison to the dividend payoutHe also reports that while designing a dividend policy, companies take into consideration the investors preference for dividends and the clientele effect. "Market Imperfections and Dividend Policy Decisions of Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2014:99, Pakistan Institute"Tax clientele effects of dividends under intertemporal consumption choices," Journal of Banking Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1089-1097, May. After the firms dividend policy is announced, investors trade shares at prices determined in a competitive market.These comparative statics are not unusual within the context of a signaling model.The effect of increases in the institutional sector on dividends depends on the other param-eters of the model.1998! find good evidence in favor of dividend-0tax-clientele effects: in fact The existence of tax clientele could affect dividend policy in several ways.An important consequence of the effect of tax clientele for the managers of the companies is that the dividend policy of the company must be clearly defined and consistently applied. The clientele effect is a theory that explains how a companys stock price will move according to the demands and goals of investors in reaction to a tax, a dividend or another policy change. Key words: Dividends, value of the share, agency theory, information content, signalling, clientele effects, ex-date effects.A Test of the Theory of Tax Clienteles for Dividend Policies. ownership of the equity of firms that ini- tiate a dividend. Clientele Effect MM also claim that the existence of clienteles of investors favoring a particular firms dividend policy should have no effect on share value.Conclusions Regarding Dividend Relevance The empirical evidence as to whether dividend policy affects firm valuation is mixed.for Dividend Payments 9.7.4 Tax Differential: Low-payout and High-payout Clientele 9.7.5 Neutrality of Dividend PolicyIllustration 9.1: Dividend Policy: Application of Walters Model. To illustrate the effect of differentAccordingly, when dividend policy is considered in the context of uncertainty Taxation of dividends. A Framework for analyzing dividend policy.

Factors to be taken into account in determining dividend policy.Consequently, some investors prefer equity income in the form of dividends, while others prefer capital gains. Clientele Effects and Equilibrium If dividend clientele effects are ignored, estimates of the revenue that can generated by changes in capital tax rates will be off-base.These policy changes permanently reduced incentives to sort into dividend clienteles on the basis of tax considerations.

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